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Lead Bisilicate
Lead Bisilicate
LEAD BISILICATE Lead Bisilicate fritting involves the melting together of glaze materials (some of which are soluble in water or stomach acids) to produce a combination which is insoluble (or relatively so). Lead bisilicate is the frit generally used in low solubility glazes and standard borax frit for leadless glazes. Low Sol. Firing range 880°C -1050°C % ANALYSIS PbO = 65.04 Al2O3...
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Lead Sesquisilicate
Lead Sesquisilicate
Supplied in powder form Often chosen for artisitic glazes where food safety is not required, this low solubility frit has a ratio of 1 part lead to 1.5 parts silica. Firing Range 860°C-1040°C LEAD SESQUISILICATE % ANALYSIS PbO = 68.52 TiO2 = 3.07 SiO2 = 28.41 Frit Comparision Guide
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Molochite 30-80
Molochite 30-80
Molochite grog graded as 30s to 80s White firing inert filler added to clay to increase strength andshape stability.
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Molochite 85-Dust
Molochite 85-Dust
Molochite grog graded as 85s - Dust White firing inert filler added to clay to increase strength andshape stability.
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Nepheline Syenite
Nepheline Syenite
A stronger flux than feldspar for uses both in glazes and bodies reducing maturing range. Analysis 9.1% K2O 7% Na2O 24.9% Al2O3 56% SiO2
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Petalite
Petalite
A secondary flux in high temperature bodies and glazes. It may also be used to alter colour response and to reduce thermal expansion.
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Porcelain China Clay
Porcelain China Clay
Porcelain China Clay (Kaolin) Powder 3416-04 Porcelain China Clay Powder Standard Porcelain China Clay. Greater plasticity than other china clays, this is designed for use in white porelain bodies.
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Potash Feldspar
Potash Feldspar
Norwegian sourced. Used as a flux in bodies and as a major constituent in glazes. It melts at approximately 1200c. Also known as Custer Feldspar K20 Na2O Al2O SiO2 11.3% 3.2% 18.5% 65.8%
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Powdered Fireclay
Powdered Fireclay
A good all round fireclay in granular form giving excellent stoneware properties. This product is in a raw, as dug state which is dried and pulverised. It may still contain some oversized particles. Typical analysis for Fireclay 203 (granular): SiO2 - 54.00 TiO2 - 1.28 Al2O3 - 28.20 Fe2O3 - 2.09 CaO - 0.36 MgO - 0.93 NA2O - 0.17 K2O - 2.76 LOI (Loss On Ignition) - 9.34
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Quartz
Quartz
Find ground silica sand for use in bodies and glazes. Analysis SiO2
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Soda Ash
Soda Ash
Sodium Carbonate. Used in the preparation of casting slips in combination with Sodium Silicate. Also a source of sodium in alkaline glazes.
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Soda Feldspar
Soda Feldspar
Norwegian sourced. The strongest flux , more suitable for low temperature glazes and bodies. K20 Na2O Al2O SiO2 2.8% 8.5% 18.5% 69.5%
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Spodumene
Spodumene
A very active flux used in small amounts in glazes. Also added to bodies where its low expansion properties help thermal shock resistance. Analysis 7.6% LiO2 26% Al2O3 64.5% SiO2
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Talc
Talc
Used in a body flux in conjunction with feldspar to reduce thermal expansion and increase thermal shock resistance. It can also be use as a secondary flux in glazes giving an opaque semi-matt / vellum finish. Analysis 32.4% MgO 46.3% SiO2 9.5% Al2O3
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TWVA (AK) Ball Clay
TWVA (AK) Ball Clay
A blend of medium plasticity ball clays similar in properties to ESVA. White-firing but slightly lower plasticity than ESVA. NOTE TWVA Ball Clay is the replacement for ESVA which has been phased out by the producers. Fires to a similar colour and has good plasticity.
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TWVD Blue Ball Clay
TWVD Blue Ball Clay
TWVD Blue Ball Clay This is a non carbonaceous clay with excellent workability. It has a thrixotropic nature and if used with other clays it will control the thrixotropy of casting slips. It is also ideal for tableware and calcareous earthenware. It can be also used as a glaze suspending agent.
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Whiting
Whiting
Principal source of lime in glazes. Under reducing conditions it assists in celadon colour development. Assists hardness and durability and in large quantities produces mattness. Analysis CaCO3
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Wollastonite
Wollastonite
Primarily used as a secondary flux. An alternative source of calcium and used in both earthenware and stoneware glazes.
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Antimony Oxide
Antimony Oxide
An oxide with various properties depending on its combination with other oxides .It is a semi metal ,having properties belonging to non-metal and metal oxides It is a glass former. It is also a modifier and opacifier. It modifies lead oxide to produce a yellow colour.
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Chromium OxideChromium Oxide
Chromium Oxide
Versatile pigment producing red ,khaki or yellow in the presence of zinc. Incorporation with tin produces pink (chrome tin pink).Normally additions of 1-3% is used. A 1% addition to low firing leaded glazes with a soda content gives a brilliant yellow. Ref.CHRO
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CMC Finnfix (Organic Polymer)
CMC Finnfix (Organic Polymer)
Added to glazes for application by brushing, generally incorporate up to 5% of binder. Mix with a glaze stirrer attachment or hand blender untill glaze is smooth. Also useful in 0.5 - 2% addition to avoid colour transfer or for majolica painting. Carboxymethyl cellulose
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Cobalt Carbonate
Cobalt Carbonate
1 - 3% to obtain a blue glaze.
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Cobalt OxideCobalt Oxide
Cobalt Oxide
The most powerful colouring oxide. This produces a deep blue or blue- black colour in lead and leadless glazes and a vivid blue in alkaline glazes. It gives good colour variations when used in combination with other oxides. 1 - 1.5% for a deep blue.
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Copper CarbonateCopper Carbonate
Copper Carbonate
Weaker but gives an evenly textured glaze less prone to speckling. 3 - 7 % addition.
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Copper OxideCopper Oxide
Copper Oxide
Copper Oxide

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Gum Arabic
Gum Arabic
Gum Arabic To use as a Glaze thickner or binder add between and 0.25- 1% It may also be used as a plasticiser. 2.5 % of the dry weight of the clay) for increasing the dry strength of bodies. Gum arabicis used as an additive to glazes or underglazes to give a harder surface when dry. This avoids rubbing and smudging before firing. Mix with hot water. Gum arabic is used as an additive to...
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Ilmenite
Ilmenite
Ilmenite is used to give a granular or spotty effect ,or else gives texture to a glaze. The ore contains titanium and iron oxide. Analysis FeO2 TiO2
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Iron ChromateIron Chromate
Iron Chromate
Produces black in combination with cobalt Ref.IROC
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Iron Oxide Black IROB
Iron Oxide Black IROB
Ferrous oxide.4 - 8 % gives darker shades than the red. Ref.IROB
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Iron Oxide Natural Red PC4510
Iron Oxide Natural Red PC4510
2 - 10% produces colours from honey to dark brown. Ref.PC4510
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Iron Oxide Red IROR
Iron Oxide Red IROR
Synthetic ferrous oxide. 2 - 10% produces even shades ranging from ambers to brown. Ref.IROR

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Iron Oxide Spangles IROS
Iron Oxide Spangles IROS
1 - 5% a coarse grade gives crystalline black specks. Ref.IROS
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Iron Oxide Yellow OchreIron Oxide Yellow Ochre
Iron Oxide Yellow Ochre
Ferric Oxide.3 - 8% produces browns and honey yellows in glazes depending on amount. Ref.IOYO
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Lithium Carbonate
Lithium Carbonate
A good alkaline flux used as a substitute for soda and potash when a good craze resistance is required. Provides typical alkaline colour response. Analysis Li2CO3
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Magnesium Carbonate
Magnesium Carbonate
Magnesium Carbonate Used as a high temperature flux in stoneware glazes (up to 10%) producing a semi matt surface. Larger quantities give an opaque dry appearance BUT may cause crawling and pin holing- CAUTION
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Manganese Carbonate
Manganese Carbonate
Generally produces colours obtained from manganese dioxide but is weaker and more finely divided. Ref.MANC
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Manganese Dioxide
Manganese Dioxide
0.2 -5% gives pink to brown in lead and leadless glazes .Gives a rich blue plum in alkaline tin ones, it can also give a rich violet when combined with small amounts of cobalt.
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Nickel OxideNickel Oxide
Nickel Oxide
Will produce greens, brown and grey glazes. It works best in combination with other oxides to give a subtle grey hue to other colours, such as cobalt or iron oxide.
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Rutile
Rutile
Rutile is used as an ore containing titanium and iron oxide. It gives a weak buff brown tint and is more commonly used to give dramatic texture to a glaze of broken or mottled colour, although it does not give this effect in lead glazes .Excellent for modifying other stains or oxides . Rutile is also widely used in crystalline glazes.
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Silicon Carbide Coarse 150's
Silicon Carbide Coarse 150's
Used for specking and reaction type glazes
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Silicon Carbide Fine 240'S
Silicon Carbide Fine 240'S
A 5% addition gives a localised reduction effect in an electric kiln. The effect requires a leadless Tin based glaze and aids colour development. Large quantities will cause severe blistering.
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Sodium Hexa-Metaphosphate (Calgon)
Sodium Hexa-Metaphosphate (Calgon)
Sodium Hexa-Metaphosphate (Calgon) A significant use for sodium hexametaphosphate is as a deflocculant in the production of clay-based ceramic particles. It is also used as a dispersing agent to break down clay and other soil types for soil texture assessment.

Tin Oxide
Tin Oxide
The most reliable, oldest, and most widely used opacifier. Produces a softer white and less refractory (neutral) than zircon.4 - 5% produces semi -opaque glazes 8 - 10% gives a fully opaque glaze.
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Titanium Dioxide
Titanium Dioxide
Used as a glaze opacifier. Additions of up to 10% produce a creamy white glaze with a matt or semi matt surface. Slow cooling assists crystallization.
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Vanadium Pentoxide
Vanadium Pentoxide
Up to 10% addition gives a weak yellow as a stain. Can be used at a higher temperature than antimony oxide, gives an opaque yellow when used in combination with tin oxide.
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Zinc Oxide
Zinc Oxide
The source of zinc, and in small amounts, is useful as a flux in middle and high temperature glazes imparting a wider firing range and good craze resistance . Above 10% tends to produce a frost-like matt surface with some opacity and can cause occasional pinholing . Also makes glazes susceptible to crawling - CAUTION
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Zirconium Silicate
Zirconium Silicate
An ultra fine form of Zircon used as an opacifier. Add 5 - 8% for semi opaque and 10 - 15% for fully opaque glazes.
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All Purpose Clay Ref. APC
All Purpose Clay Ref. APC
An all purpose grogged buff stoneware for oxidised or reduced firing. Throws well.Smooth Texture.Buff. Firing Temp.1015 Bisque -1280 deg.C Commercial Clays
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